Chamberland Autoclave

1880 but history put its development in the 1860’s. It accepted a small amount of surgery instruments to to be processed. The steam would hopefully kill the bacteria. The clamps seem a bit of an overkill for the size. Maybe, it was just assumed the higher the tension on the lid the more pressure or steam would develop inside the pot. The original size was about two pieces of paper. Chamberland studied with Pasteur but presented this himself for aiding surgeries.

The life expectancy before sterilization was 38 years old. It’s not, very long. After hygiene and sterilization was popular it added a decade to everyone’s life.